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Hiding in the shadow of the opioid epidemic is another troubling public health crisis, the precipitous increase in people whose liver is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV).

It’s likely you have seen the drug company commercials advertising medications to treat hepatitis C. In these commercials, it appears that hepatitis C is only a problem among older Americans. Although baby boomers still represent the largest group infected with hepatitis C virus, these commercials only tell a part of the story.

The hepatitis C virus is transmitted by direct contact with the blood of someone who is infected with the virus. Most people who are infected with the hepatitis C virus do not have any symptoms. Others may have very mild, vague symptoms including fever, fatigue, joint pain, nausea, and vomiting. Although the infection often goes away on its own, more than 75% of people who get the hepatitis C virus will develop a persistent (chronic) infection. Over time, chronic HCV can lead to liver failure and an increased risk of liver cancer.

The good news is effective treatment options are available that cure hepatitis C. You are considered cured when the virus is no longer detected in your bloodstream. But because you may not develop any symptoms until it is much too late to prevent the serious liver complications of chronic hepatitis C, you need to be tested to see if you are at risk of infection.

The prevalence of HCV has been steadily rising over the last three decades since its discovery in 1989. But according to the CDC, more recently there has been a marked increase in the diagnosis of HCV, especially in those under 40. This increase parallels the rise in the misuse of opioids and heroin in this age group.

But there is another problem: HCV infection during pregnancy

About half of these young people who are injecting drugs are women of childbearing age. And although sexual transmission or transmission of HCV from infected household items is rare, it can happen. And women whose partners inject drugs are also at risk for exposure.

A pregnant woman can pass the hepatitis C virus to her baby. It is not exactly clear at what point in pregnancy HCV transmission occurs, but there is some evidence to suggest it is more likely to occur close to the onset of labor or actually during labor and delivery. This is known as vertical transmission. Luckily vertical transmission of HCV is relatively uncommon, with 6 out of 100 babies born to HCV-infected mothers ultimately testing positive for HCV.

That said, in a recent article published in the Annals of Internal Medicine, researchers from the CDC reported that cases of HCV “essentially doubled among reproductive-aged women between 2006 and 2014, from 15,550 to 31,039.” They went on to compare rates of HCV in pregnant women and anticipated new cases in children to actual reported cases of HCV in children. The results suggest that there are likely a lot of children who have the hepatitis C virus but no symptoms. The authors conclude that these results should spur thinking about whether it might be appropriate to screen children for HCV and if so, which children and when?

How do you know if you have hepatitis C?

A screening test that measures antibodies to HCV can only tell whether a person has been exposed to the virus, but it doesn’t tell whether there is active virus in the body now. To diagnosis an active infection, you need another blood test that looks for HCV RNA. This measures “viral load” (how much active virus is present).

Factors that increase a pregnant woman’s risk of passing HCV to her baby

A pregnant woman with evidence of HCV antibodies but no detectable active virus in her body is very unlikely to transmit HCV to her baby. On the other hand, pregnant women with very high viral loads are believed to be at increased risk for vertical transmission of HCV.

Babies born to women who are infected with both HIV and HCV are at increased risk of becoming infected with HCV. Although we don’t know exactly why, it may be that the HIV weakens the immune system so that there is more HCV in the blood.

HCV tends to infect a certain type of blood cell more often in women who contract the virus from injecting drugs. And it turns out that pregnant women with this type of infection are more likely to transmit the virus to their babies.

How to protect moms and babies from the effects of HCV

Although the chances are relatively low, the vertical transmission rate of HCV is significant, as is the liver disease that chronic infection can cause. And in the shadows of the current opioid epidemic, a growing number of reproductive-age women are contracting HCV, making vertical transmission of HCV even more of a concern.

Current guidelines recommend screening only “at risk pregnant women” for HCV, but some experts have started discussing the routine screening of all pregnant women for HCV.



CREDIT – Andrea Chisholm, MD,Contributor

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Questions and answers
Who are the people who are prone to tooth decay?
How do I know I have tooth decay?
How is dental caries treated?
Is there a specific depth in which the pockets of gums that require surgery are formed?
How long is it expected to continue to restrict performance after gum surgery?
The phenomenon of bad breath spread among many people, and the reasons and methods of treatment depending on the severity of the problem.


Causes of bad breath

In order to get rid of bad breath, we first need to identify the causes. These are usually different from one person to another. Treatment methods vary according to the individual causes of each case. When the causes are treated properly, the condition of the mouth odor will improve as a natural result.

1 – The smell of mouth and cleanliness of teeth
Neglecting or cleaning the mouth, gums and teeth may be the main cause of bad breath, so following the right methods at the right pace may solve the problem drastically. Failure to do so may result in the accumulation of food residues between the teeth:
The appearance of bad breath that can only be eliminated by cleaning the teeth well.
2 – The smell of mouth and nutrition
The food you eat every day may cause bad breath, and this may happen when you eat a strong aroma like onion, garlic and spices, drink strong-smelling beverages such as alcohol or coffee and accumulation of food continuously between the teeth and for long periods.
3 – The smell of mouth and dental treatments
Sometimes the patient may resort to some therapeutic and cosmetic solutions that may cause the appearance of foul odor, such as: Neglect cleaning dentures, Neglect cleaning of orthodontic devices.
This may lead to the accumulation of bacteria and thus the appearance of bad breath.


4 – Smell of mouth and smoking
Smoking and the consumption of any tobacco product of any kind may cause one of the following: The appearance of bad breath. The emergence of many problems of gums and teeth.
5 – Mouth odor and health problems
Some oral health problems can cause bad breath, including: Dry mouth, saliva works to clean the mouth and get rid of food leftovers, and when the salivation is decreased, there is a deficiency in this function, which leads to the emergence of bad breath.
6 – Injury to mouth, teeth and gums with infection, infections or ulcers.
Some diseases not directly related to the mouth, such as pneumonia, sore throat, sinus, esophageal reflux and others.

Taking certain types of medications may lead to: Dry mouth, The secretion of chemicals affects the smell of the mouth.

Ways to get rid of bad breath

Halitosis can be eliminated by making some changes that will have a significant impact, including:

  1. Drink plenty of water, and do not neglect taking your daily intake of it.
  2. Follow a proper dental hygiene routine, this includes:
  3. Use a toothbrush at least twice a day, using the appropriate toothpaste for your teeth and gums and for a minimum of two minutes.
  4. Use the dental floss at least once a day, and insert it and move it between the teeth in the right way.
  5. Use the mouthwash once or twice a day and gargle for about 30 seconds.
  6. Brush cleaning only does not guarantee access to all areas of the oral cavity, but with a mouthwash containing a toothpick extract, you will be able to do so. % Of the oral cavity and cleans it and eliminates the bacteria and bacteria that cause bad breath, not only that, but also reduces the risk of gum problems and teeth.
  7. Use a special brush to clean the tongue daily.
  8. Visit your dentist regularly to do the necessary swirling tests and keep your mouth and teeth healthy.
  9. Reduce the consumption of strong-smelling foods, especially before important dates, such as garlic, onions, cheese and sausages which may remain in the mouth for a long time.


If your mouth odor problem persists, check with your dentist to see if there are health problems or other illnesses you need to treat.
If you do not get rid of the problem of bad breath, despite following all the above mentioned tips, your doctor may resort to surgical solutions or laser treatments.





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Many couples and lovers derive pleasure from anal sex. About 5% to 10% of sexually active women and an estimated 90% of men with male partners engage in this form of intercourse.


Anal intercourse is a form of sexual activity that involves inserting the penis in the anus. Anal sex or anal intercourse is generally the insertion and thrusting of the erect penis into a person’s anus, or anus and rectum, for sexual pleasure. Other forms of anal sex include fingering, the use of sex toys for anal penetration, oral sex performed on the anus (anilingus), and pegging.


The anus is full of nerve ending; this makes it sensitive to stimulation which people enjoy. Research indicates that anal sex occurs significantly less frequently than other sexual behaviors, but its association with dominance and submission, as well as taboo, makes it an appealing stimulus to people of all sexual orientations.


While quite a lot of couple regards it to be safe and fun, the practice is known to pose some health risks. Among these risks are the following:

  1. Transmission of STD’s: Unprotected penile-anal penetration, colloquially known as barebacking, carries a higher risk of passing on sexually transmitted infections (STIs/STDs) because the anal sphincter is a delicate, easily torn tissue that can provide an entry for pathogens. The high concentration of white blood cells around the rectum, together with the risk of tearing and the colon’s function to absorb fluid, are what place those who engage in anal sex at high risk of STIs. Unprotected receptive anal sex (with an HIV positive partner) is the sex act most likely to result in HIV transmission. Other infections that can be transmitted by unprotected anal sex are human papillomavirus (HPV) (which can increase risk of anal cancer; typhoid fever; amoebiasis; chlamydia; cryptosporidiosis; E. coli infections; giardiasis; gonorrhea; hepatitis A; hepatitis B; hepatitis C; herpes simplex;Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8);lymphogranuloma venereum; Mycoplasma hominis; Mycoplasma genitalium; pubic lice; salmonellosis; shigella; syphilis; tuberculosis; and Ureaplasma urealyticum.


  1. Weakening of the anal sphincter: The structure of the anus is surrounded by rings of muscles called the anal sphincter. The function of the anal sphincter is to hold feces and tighten after we defecate. Continuous anal sex usually leads to weakening of the anal sphincter; this makes it difficult to hold feces.


  1. Urinary tract infection: There are a variety of factors that make male-to-female anal intercourse riskier for a female than for a male. For example, besides the risk of HIV transmission being higher for anal intercourse than for vaginal intercourse, the risk of injury to the woman during anal intercourse is significantly higher than the risk of injury to her during vaginal intercourse because of the durability of the vaginal tissues compared to the anal tissues. Additionally, if a man moves from anal intercourse immediately to vaginal intercourse without a condom or without changing it, infections can arise in the vagina (or urinary tract) due to bacteria present within the anus; these infections can also result from switching between vaginal sex and anal sex by the use of fingers or sex toys.


  1. Injury and cancer: Anal sex can exacerbate hemorrhoids and therefore result in bleeding; in other cases, the formation of a hemorrhoid is attributed to anal sex. If bleeding occurs as a result of anal sex, it may also be because of a tear in the anal or rectal tissues (an anal fissure) or perforation (a hole) in the colon, the latter of which being a serious medical issue that should be remedied by immediate medical attention. Most cases of anal cancer are related to infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV). Anal sex alone does not cause anal cancer; the risk of anal cancer through anal sex is attributed to HPV infection, which is often contracted through unprotected anal sex. Anal cancer is relatively rare, and significantly less common than cancer of the colon or rectum (colorectal cancer); the American Cancer Society states that it affects approximately 7,060 people (4,430 in women and 2,630 in men) and results in approximately 880 deaths (550 in women and 330 in men) in the United States, and that, though anal cancer has been on the rise for many years, it is mainly diagnosed in adults, “with an average age being in the early 60s” and it “affects women somewhat more often than men.



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Please the vagina is not a Perfumery and should not be expected to smell like one neither is it an Ogiri factory and should not be left to smell like one. For clarity, Ogiri is the ingredient added to Bitter leaf and Ora soup. Though tasty, it smells like poof and draws flies like a latrine.

Vaginal douching is the use of fluids or mixtures to wash the vagina. In supermarkets and pharmacies, one could find  douche preparations. People also use vinegar, salt water, baking soda and so on, these are not vagina friendly the VAGINA IS SELF-CLEANSING.

Reasons people douche range from:
To keep the vagina clea, prevent pregnancy, treat infections and so on. Bad odour emanating from the vagina could be a sign of an ongoing infection. Douching masks the problem and does not treat it. A visit to the physician is encouraged in cases of vagina discharge, pain, odour…etc Infections such as bacterial vaginosis could impart a fishy odour to the vagina. After sex the odour may be exacerbated, making the whole room smell like a dead fish depot.

Douching may create a vicious cycle… It distorts the vagina flora. The vagina flora are little organisms inhabiting the vagina that helps maintain its pH (potential of Hydrogen). They fight for space with harmful organisms thereby suppressing their oppression.

When one douches, poof… you decommission the little armies the harmful organisms have room to thrive, infection sets in. So you see in a bid to make the vagina classy and all decked out, we create a problem.

There are secretions in the vagina which cleanse it… Washing the outer region with mild soap and water is enough to keep it clean and healthy.

Douching does not protect against STIs, in fact the irritation caused by the process could open up portals for harmful organisms to enter the body

Douching is also not a birth control option. If it’s a smell due to inattentive hygiene, “normal” washing with mild soap and water is enough to take care of it

Sexual Hygiene

Sexual hygiene needs to improve amongst us. We live in the tropics, hot and sunny all day. We hustle up and down all sweaty and greasy down below.

Because of power outage, you got home there’s no fan or AC to cool you off.

No running water in the house.
You must conserve the fuel till later in the night and so generator is not on to pump water.

The woman entered the kitchen to make sure dinner is on time.

Oga returned from work with his hands in the pockets trying to crush the heads of unseen microbes disturbing the forest of Mr Jonny down below.

All he manged to do was to yank off the trousers, gave a sigh of relief with the minimal breeze oozing to the Crown prince below.

He loaded the portions mounted on the dinning table.
Mummy and daddy sat on the sofa, watched the 10 to 11 pm news. The body is not a stone and so somnolence began on the sofa.

Mummy would be the first to retire to the bedroom. ..

The clue for daddy would be the convulsing generator set, suffocating from lack of adequate fuel.
He then stood and rushed to kill off the noise maker….
With his phone light he trudged to the bedroom.

In the wee hours of the night, mummy and daddy play ensued.
The colony on the labia and the reeling soldiers along and across the body of the Crown prince followed the passionate ocean to the harbours in the city of Ms V.

Days to weeks, weeks to month, same daily activities and unchanged bedroom habits.

Soon enough, the Staph established castles…starved to death the normal flora with resultant smells, discharges and other features on STI. POOR SEXUAL HYGIENE.

Take home message: a good shower (or perineal wash off with water) will not only wade off the germs. It will also make the passionate journey friction less.

Delivered on Doctor ON Air by: Dr. Ibuchukwu

Facebook: healthglamm Twitter: @healthglamm Google+: Orabueze Ibuchukwu

LinkedIn: Orabueze Ibuchukwu

Doctor On Air is a social media arm of the Michael Agbaakin Foundation. See:

The objective is to engage the members on topical health and development issues.

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Maybe you’ve just eaten, or finished a meal an hour or so ago — and now your stomach just doesn’t “feel right.” You feel bloated and uncomfortable. Or maybe it’s more of a burning sensation. Maybe you feel queasy, or even throw up. You might say you have an “upset stomach” or indigestion. If there is no known medical cause for your symptoms, your doctor would call it “dyspepsia” or “bad digestion.”

Indigestion is real. The medical term for persistent upper abdominal pain or discomfort without an identifiable medical cause is functional dyspepsia. The symptoms can come and go at any time, but often eating is the trigger. Sometimes the discomfort begins during the meal; other times, about half an hour later.

If you suffer from functional dyspepsia, you’re not alone. Roughly 25% of the population is affected, and it hits men and women equally. It’s responsible for a significant percentage of visits to primary care doctors, in part because many people worry they might have an ulcer. While it’s frustrating that the cause of functional dyspepsia is unknown, it’s even more frustrating that there is no surefire cure.

Getting Heartburn Relief

The good news is that there are simple things you can try to help get some heartburn relief:

1. Avoid foods that trigger your symptoms.

2. Eat small portions and don’t overeat; try eating smaller, more frequent meals throughout the day, and be sure to chew food slowly and completely.

3. Avoid activities that result in swallowing excess air, such as smoking, eating quickly, chewing gum, and drinking carbonated beverages.

4. Reduce your stress. Try relaxation therapies, cognitive behavioral therapy, or exercise. An aerobic workout 3-5 times per week can help, but don’t exercise right after eating.

5. Get enough rest.

6. Don’t lie down within two hours of eating.

7.Keep your weight under control.

For more on diagnosing and treating indigestion, buy The Sensitive Gut, a Special Health Report from Harvard Medical School.

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The immunity of our body system is the only strong army that can defend us from any invader. If our immune (defense) system is week it will be easy for the invader to destroy and steal whatever they wanted to. That is exactly how human body defense mechanism works. The body system must be protected against invasion by pathogens like bacteria, virus and germs. Malaria can get into the body by female anophelex mosquito as a vector, which can destroy the entire white blood cells( The General of the armies) . Once this pathogens was able to weaken the body’s defense system, just like a country under enemy attack, for the country to overcome the offensive the country would have to invite strong allies to help them, the same thing is applicable to the body system. Once the body is week there will be need for external help such as medical treatments, else the body will collapse. White blood cell carry weapon Kd war that our body needs to defend itself.



  1. Take adequate rest daily, especially at night without any interference especially uses of digital gadgets like mobile phone at night
  2. Eat balance diet
  3. Eat fruits at least 3times in a day
  4. Drink adequate water to flush toxins out of your body
  5. Engage in regular physical exercise
  6. Reduce your level of sugar intake
  7. Avoid using sharp objects that had been left open for some time or that is not yours
  8. 1.Go for medical screening if you see any strange symptoms.
  9. Reduce or stop taking alcohol and smoking, instead take red wine.
  10. Doing this you are already boosting and protecting your body defense mechanism.


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Home blood sugar monitoring for type 2 diabetes

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People with diabetes are often advised to check their blood sugar levels at home by pricking a finger and testing the blood with a glucose meter. They can review the results with their doctors over the phone, online, or at the next office appointment. The value of this for people with type 2 diabetes is uncertain.

In a study published in JAMA Internal Medicine, researchers enrolled 450 people with Type 2 diabetes, none of whom were taking insulin. They were randomly assigned to one of three groups:

  • no self-monitoring of blood sugar

  • once daily self-monitoring of blood sugar

  • once-daily self-monitoring of blood sugar with “enhanced feedback” from their blood glucose meters with messages intended to educate and motivate the study volunteers.

After one year these researchers found that, compared with those not self-monitoring blood sugar, those who self-monitored had no improvement in the control of their blood sugar, and had no improvement in measures of quality of life.

So what?

The impact of this study could be enormous. Of the enrolled study subjects, three-quarters routinely checked blood sugar at home. If that’s typical of people with type 2 diabetes, these findings could allow thousands of people to stop sticking themselves and save money on monitoring equipment, with no ill effects on their health.

But even if these findings are confirmed, there may be situations when home monitoring is still useful and important. For example, home monitoring might be a good idea when people like those in this study:

  • develop an infection

  • change the dose of their diabetes medications

  • add or stop taking one of their medications

  • gain or lose a significant amount of weight

  • begin taking insulin.

This study did not examine these situations and so could not draw conclusions about them. It’s also worth noting this study lasted only one year. It may take longer to see a benefit from home monitoring. Finally, this study did not include individuals with type 1 diabetes, so the results do not apply to them.

The bottom line

This new study suggests that doctors treating people with type 2 diabetes may not need to recommend routine self-monitoring of blood sugar. However, while that may be true for the average person with type 2 diabetes who is not taking insulin, we’ll need more studies and longer-term studies to identify which people with type 2 diabetes will benefit most from home monitoring and when it’s just not worth the effort.

Robert H. Shmerling, MD, Faculty Editor, Harvard Health Publications

Follow me on Twitter @RobShmerling

First published on

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Fibroid and Infertility

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Fibroids are very common – they are benign (non cancerous) tumors of the uterine muscle. The size and location of the fibroid are important. The large majority of them are very small or located in an area of the uterus such that they will not have any impact on reproductive function.


There are 3 general locations for fibroids:

  1. Subserosal – on the outside surface of the uterus
  2. Intramural – within the muscular wall of the uterus
  3. Submucous – bulging into the uterine cavity


The womb has an inner part called the mucosa, it has the muscle layer and the covering called the serosa that is called the submucosal fibroid. That type is the main cause of infertility or recurrent miscarriages because that is where the baby stays and grows, so the baby and the fibroid competes for space. Submucous fibroids can often be surgically resected to improve fertility.

Other ways fibroid can cause infertility includes..

1.It creates a greater distance for the sperm to travel from the vagina to the tubes where d baby is formed
2.It struggles with the baby for blood and nutrient
3.Blocks the tube
4.Prevents the formed baby from implanting into the womb
5.I had mentioned competing for space with the baby
6.Pain during sex makes sex unpleasurable and prevent pregnancy


To note: – if you are a woman aged 30 or above, and you have never had a Baby, it is a good idea to have a pelvic ultrasound scan.



It can be medical or surgical. The choice of treatment depends on the size, the person’s choice and desire for pregnancy. Large fibroids require surgical removal
Removal of the womb is the definitive management. Medical treatment is by drugs that counter the effect of hormones.

If you have a fibroid, and it is big enough to operate, PLEASE GO FOR SURGERY. There is currently no known drug treatment that will shrink a large fibroid (the drugs available now can reduce the size so that it is easier to remove by survey. If a fibroid is left to grow large and left alone because we are afraid that no Man may want us, we may be putting our lives at risk.


See also



Doctor ON Air by: Dr Tochukwu/Gynaecologist

Doctor On Air is a social media arm of the Michael Agbaakin Foundation. See:
The objective is to engage the members on topical health and development issues.

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Grapes may protect your teeth from decay for a long time

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Many things are causing damage to the teeth and decay, but is it possible that the grapes protect them from it?


A new study, published in the Journal of Dental Research, found a compound in grapes capable of strengthening teeth and protecting them from licorice.

Such results would help a large number of people, strengthen their teeth, enhance their health and thus not lose them early in life, the researchers said.


This compound in grapes has long been associated with many benefits to human health, the most important of which is the enhancement of blood flow and improvement of heart function in the body.


The researchers found in this study that this compound was able to reduce the chances of extraction of teeth by increasing the age of fillings, ranging from 5 to 7 years in normal, this compound works to strengthen the ivory mainly.


This result means that if teeth are damaged, dentists will be able to use toothpicks and make their cohesion stronger with the material used in the fillings, thereby reducing the risk of tooth decay.


The researchers noted that if there are problems with dental fillings, the risk of tooth decay increases, which prompted them to seek alternative and another treatment of this problem.


There are many treatments currently available to treat tooth decay, which aim to remove the damaged part of the tooth and replace it with a pad made of different materials such as porcelain or resin.

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Adenoids: Conditions, Possibly Treatment and Removal

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Definition of Adenoids

A patch of tissue at the back of the nose, commonly found in children. Like lymph nodes, adenoids are part of the immune system and are made of the same type of tissue (lymphoid tissue). White blood cells circulate through the adenoids and other lymphoid tissue, reacting to foreign invaders in the body.

Functions of the Adenoids

Helps build up the  immune system in children

They trap harmful germs that one breathes in. They Become less important once a child gets older and the body develops other ways to fight germs.
They start shrinking from 6 to 7 years of age and practically disappear by teenage age.

Adenoids Conditions

Adenoiditis: they cause problems when they swell while trapping germs.Inflammation of the adenoids, often from infection. Bacteria or viruses may cause adenoiditis.

Enlarged adenoids: In children, the adenoids can get larger because of infection or reasons that are unclear. Very large adenoids can interfere with breathing or with the flow of mucus.

Obstructive sleep apnea: While sleeping, enlarged ADS may intermittently block the flow of air through the throat. This can cause a person to stop breathing for a few seconds (known as apnea) and can occur several times each night.

Ear infections (otitis): In children, enlarged adenoids may block the Eustachian tubes, which drain fluid from the ears into the throat. If these tubes are unable to drain, it can lead to repeated ear infections.

Endoscopy: A small, flexible tube with a lighted camera on the end is inserted into the nose or throat. A doctor can view the nasal passages and adenoids on a video screen during endoscopy.

Computed tomography (CT): A CT scanner takes multiple X-rays, and a computer constructs detailed images of the sinuses, nasal cavities, and adenoids.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): An MRI scanner uses a high-powered magnet and a computer to create highly detailed images of the nasal passages, sinuses, and adenoids.

Options of treatment

1. Medications like: -antibiotics, anti-allergy drugs, decongestants, nasal steroids.

However the relief from use of medications  is short-lived and does not stop snoring

2. Surgery- Surgery called Adenoidectomy- this is the standard treatment.
Grommets can also be inserted into the ears of children who have difficulty hearing due to ‘glue ear’. This helps to reverse ear changes.


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